What is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method that makes decisions using data. It can be used to determine if a statement about a population parameter should be accepted or rejected.Null vs Alternative

The null hypothesis represents a theory that has been put forward, either because it is believed to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument, but has not been proved.Types of Errors

Two errors can occur: Type I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) and Type II error (failing to reject a false null hypothesis). Balancing these errors is crucial to effective testing.P-Value Explained

The p-value quantifies the evidence against the null hypothesis. A small p-value, typically less than 0.05, indicates strong evidence against the null hypothesis, suggesting it should be rejected.Test Statistics

Test statistics are calculated from sample data and used in hypothesis testing to determine whether to reject the null hypothesis. The choice of test statistic depends on the distribution and nature of the data.Power of a Test

The power of a hypothesis test is the probability that it correctly rejects a false null hypothesis. A test with high power is more likely to detect an effect when there is one.Misconceptions Clarified

A common misconception is that the p-value indicates the probability of the null hypothesis being true. Instead, it measures how compatible the data are with the null hypothesis.What does hypothesis testing determine?

Population parameter decisions

Sample data relevance

Theory proof correctness

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