# The Evolution of Mathematics Through History

Mathematics in Ancient Times
Math originated with counting systems. Ancient Sumerians (around 4000 BCE) developed the first known writing system, incorporating numerical records for transactions and inventories, using base 60, influencing time measurement today.
Pythagoras' Mystical Mathematics
Pythagoras, a presocratic Greek philosopher, attributed mystical significance to numbers. His school's advancements included Pythagorean theorem, crucial in Euclidean geometry, and their belief in whole numbers fostered number theory's early development.
The concept of 'zero' as a number emerged independently in several cultures. Ancient Mayans and Indians developed it circa 4th century CE. It reached Europe in the 12th century through Arabic scholars, fundamentally transforming mathematics.
Unsung Heroes: Islamic Mathematicians
Islamic mathematicians like Al-Khwarizmi (9th century) played a critical role. His works on algebra (al-jabr) laid foundations for algebraic disciplines and introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.
Renaissance: Math's Great Revival
The Renaissance revived mathematical studies in Europe. Mathematicians like Fibonacci, who introduced Arabic numerals and his famous sequence, and Luca Pacioli, who disseminated knowledge on double-entry bookkeeping, were pivotal figures.
Euler's Prolific Contributions
18th-century Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler was exceptionally prolific, contributing to various fields, including topology and introducing graph theory. His work laid groundwork for modern mathematics and many areas of physics.
Mathematics in the Computer Age
The 20th century's advent of digital computers revolutionized mathematics. Pioneers like Alan Turing laid the groundwork for computer science, which now permeates all mathematical fields, enabling complex problem-solving and simulations.
Ancient Math and Astronomy
Babylonian astronomers used geometric principles to track Jupiter's path in the sky around 350 BCE, predating European methods by over a millennium.
Which base did Sumerians use?
Base 10
Base 60
Base 100
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