# The Evolution of Mathematics Through Ages

Mathematics in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptians used simple mathematics for building pyramids around 3000 BCE. They approximated the area of a circle by comparing it to a square, leading to an early form of geometry.
Pythagoras' Theorem Discovery
Although named after Pythagoras, evidence suggests the famous theorem was known to the Babylonians 1000 years earlier. It remains a fundamental principle in Euclidean geometry.
Euclid's Elements Shape Math
Euclid's 'Elements', composed around 300 BCE, is one of the most influential works in mathematics, systematizing the knowledge of geometry and introducing rigorous proofs.
The concept of zero as a number was developed in India by the 7th century. It revolutionized mathematics by enabling the development of algebra and calculus.
Renaissance: Algebra Blooms
During the Renaissance, mathematicians like Fibonacci introduced Arabic numerals to Europe. Algebra flourished and the stage was set for the eventual development of modern mathematics.
Calculus' Simultaneous Invention
Calculus, a cornerstone of modern science, was independently invented by Newton and Leibniz in the late 17th century. Their dispute over priority led to a rift between British and continental European mathematicians.
Euler's Prolific Contributions
Leonhard Euler, an 18th-century mathematician, made pivotal contributions, including the formula e^(i*pi) + 1 = 0, linking five fundamental mathematical constants in a surprising and elegant way.
Ancient Egyptian Pi
Ancient Egyptians approximated π as 3.1605, surprisingly close to the actual value of 3.1416, using only basic fractions and geometry.
What approximated a circle in Ancient Egypt?
Ratio of pyramid slopes
Comparison to a square
Circumference formula
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