Origin of Agriculture
Agriculture began around 10,000 BCE with the Neolithic Revolution. Domestication of plants and animals occurred independently in various regions, including the Fertile Crescent, Mesoamerica, and China.
First Urban Societies
By 3000 BCE, cities like Uruk in Mesopotamia showcased urban planning, social stratification, and writing. These developments marked the transition from prehistory to the historical period known as Bronze Age.
Trade Networks Expansion
The Silk Road, established during the Han Dynasty, connected China to the Mediterranean. It was not just a trade route but also a conduit for cultural, technological, and biological exchange.
Mongol Global Impact
Under Genghis Khan, the Mongols created the largest contiguous land empire by 1279. Their rule facilitated trade, communication, and exchange across Eurasia, significantly impacting world history.
Age of Exploration
European expeditions from the 15th century onwards discovered new lands, creating global trade networks. The Columbian Exchange fundamentally altered the world's ecology and human societies.
Industrial Revolution Shift
Originating in Britain in the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution spread worldwide. It transformed economies, populations, and environmental conditions, initiating the modern industrial landscape.
Post World War II, a wave of decolonization swept across Asia and Africa. Former colonies achieved independence, redefining global political boundaries and international relations.