# Fundamentals of Electricity

Understanding Electric Charge
Electricity begins with electric charge, a fundamental property of matter. It's carried by subatomic particles, with electrons bearing negative charge and protons positive. Charges exert force on each other, attracting or repelling, which is crucial for electricity's flow.
Voltage: Electrical Force
Voltage, measured in volts, is the potential difference that drives electric charge flow in a circuit. It's akin to pressure in water pipes, propelling electrons from the negative terminal to the positive, completing the circuit and enabling work to be performed.
Current: Flow of Electrons
Current, measured in amperes, reflects the rate of electron flow past a point in a circuit. Direct current (DC) flows unidirectionally, while alternating current (AC) changes direction periodically. Most homes use AC due to its efficient long-distance transmission capability.
Resistance: Flow's Opposition
Resistance, measured in ohms, is a material's opposition to the flow of electric current. Ohm's Law (V=IR) connects voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R), stating that current in a circuit is directly proportional to voltage and inversely to resistance.
Electrical Power Equation
Electrical power, measured in watts, quantifies energy usage over time. The equation P=IV combines power (P), current (I), and voltage (V). This relationship helps understand how much energy devices consume and the potential for energy-efficient innovations.
Circuit Types Explained
Circuits can be series or parallel. Series circuits have one path for current, causing a failure in one component to break the circuit. Parallel circuits have multiple paths, allowing for uninterrupted flow even if one path fails, hence their preference in buildings.
Superconductivity: Zero Resistance
Superconductivity is a phenomenon where certain materials exhibit zero electrical resistance at very low temperatures. This allows for lossless electricity transmission and powerful electromagnets, with potential revolutionary applications in energy and medical fields.
What carries a negative electric charge?
Protons in nucleus
Electrons in orbitals
Neutrons in atoms
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