Protein Diversity Introduction
Proteins are remarkably diverse molecules. Essential for structure, function, and regulation in body's tissues and organs, they vary in form, function, and complexity.
Protein Structures Unveiled
Proteins are structured in four levels: primary (amino acid sequence), secondary (alpha-helixes and beta-sheets), tertiary (3D conformation), and quaternary (multi-polypeptide complexes).
Enzymes are catalyst proteins that speed up biological reactions. Remarkably, one enzyme can process a thousand molecules per second, optimizing vital processes like digestion and DNA replication.
Antibodies, a type of defensive protein, can recognize and neutralize foreign invaders. Their variability allows the immune system to adapt to new threats, providing lasting protection.
Hormonal Proteins Regulation
Hormonal proteins, such as insulin, act as messengers coordinating biological processes. Insulin's role in regulating blood glucose is critical, malfunction can lead to diabetes.
Protein Dietary Sources
Proteins are found in meat, dairy, nuts, and legumes. Animal proteins are 'complete' as they contain all essential amino acids, while most plant proteins are 'incomplete'.
Consuming Proteins Wisely
Excessive protein intake can strain kidneys and lead to dehydration. Balance is key, combining different protein sources can ensure all amino acids are included in the diet.