Human Eye Anatomy
The human eye functions like a camera. Its lens focuses light onto the retina, where photoreceptor cells detect light and color. Surprisingly, the eye can differentiate approximately 10 million colors.
Color Vision Dynamics
Color perception is made possible by cone cells. Humans typically have three types of cones, each sensitive to different wavelengths corresponding to red, green, and blue. This trichromatic vision is not universal in the animal kingdom.
Eye's Adaptive Nature
Our eyes can adapt from bright sunlight to near darkness in few seconds. This is due to the iris adjusting the pupil size and rods/cones adapting to new light levels, a process called photoreception adaptation.
Afterimages and Illusions
Staring at an object for too long can result in an afterimage, caused by overstimulation of photoreceptors. Moreover, certain patterns can trick our eyes into seeing motion or colors that aren't there, revealing how our brain processes visual information.
Color Blindness Explained
Color blindness often results from the absence or malfunction of certain cone cells. Uncommonly, a person might have a fourth type of cone, allowing them to see a wider spectrum of colors.
Polarized Light Perception
Interestingly, some people, known as 'tetrachromats,' can perceive polarized light, a trait common in birds and insects, but rare in humans. This could be considered a hidden layer of the colorful world for most of us.
Impact of Blue Light
Blue light, prevalent in digital screens, can impact our vision and circadian rhythms. It's absorbed by the cornea and lens but can reach the retina, potentially harming light-sensitive cells over prolonged exposure.