Exploring Earth's Biological Diversity and Extremes

Earth's Biodiversity Wonders
Earth's Biodiversity Wonders
Our planet hosts around 8.7 million species, with the majority undiscovered. Tropical rainforests are biodiversity hotspots, containing over half of Earth's terrestrial species in just 6% of its land area.
Microbial Dominance
Microbial Dominance
Microorganisms are the true rulers of the living world. A single teaspoon of soil can hold billions of microbes, more than the human population of Earth, each with roles crucial to the planet's ecosystems.
Extreme Life Thrives
Extreme Life Thrives
Life exists in Earth's most inhospitable places. Tardigrades, for instance, survive temperatures from -272°C to 150°C, radiation that would kill humans, and the vacuum of space, challenging our understanding of life's limits.
Plants Fuel Life
Plants Fuel Life
Plants, through photosynthesis, produce around 132 billion tons of sugar annually, forming the base of food chains. They also generate most of the oxygen we breathe, making Earth habitable for animals.
Animal Navigation Mysteries
Animal Navigation Mysteries
Many animals have remarkable navigation abilities. Monarch butterflies migrate thousands of miles using a sun compass, while homing pigeons may utilize Earth's magnetic fields, a skill humans are far from mastering.
Deep-Sea Ecosystems
Deep-Sea Ecosystems
Deep-sea habitats are less explored than Mars. Hydrothermal vents support unique life forms, such as chemosynthetic bacteria, which sustain ecosystems without sunlight by converting chemicals into energy.
Cooperation Shapes Evolution
Cooperation Shapes Evolution
Evolution isn't just about competition. Cooperative relationships, like those between bees and flowers, drive mutual evolutionary changes. Some trees even communicate and share resources via underground fungal networks, a phenomenon called the 'Wood Wide Web'.
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How many Earth species estimated?
Around 8.7 million species
About 2.5 million species
Approx. 10 billion species